In political systems based on the principle of separation of powers, authority is distributed among several branches (executive, legislative, judicial) — an attempt to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of a small group of people. In such a system, the executive does not pass laws (the role of the legislature) or interpret them (the role of the judiciary). Instead, the executive enforces the law as written by the legislature and interpreted by the judiciary. The executive can be the source of certain types of law, such as a decree or executive order. Executive bureaucracies are commonly the source of regulations.
In the Westminster political system, the principle of separation of powers in not as entrenched. Members of the executive, called ministers, are also members of the legislature, and hence play an important part in both the writing and enforcing of law.
An executive officer (often abbreviated XO) is generally a person responsible for running an organization, although the exact nature of the role varies depending on the organization.
While there is no clear line between executive or principal and inferior officers, principal officers are high-level officials in the executive branch of U.S. government such as department heads of independent agencies. In Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935), the Court distinguished between executive officers and quasi-legislative or quasi-judicial officers by stating that the former serve at the pleasure of the president and may be removed at his discretion. The latter may be removed only with procedures consistent with statutory conditions enacted by Congress. The decision by the Court was that the Federal Trade Commission was a quasi-legislative body because of other powers it had, and therefore the president could not fire an FTC member for political reasons. Congress can’t retain removal power over officials with executive function (Bowsher v. Synar). However, statutes can restrict removal if not purely executive (Humphrey’s executor), but can't restrict removal of purely executive officer (Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926)). The standard is whether restriction "impedes the president’s ability to perform his constitutional duty" (Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988)).
The varieties of Chinese are usually described by native speakers as dialects of a single Chinese language, but linguists note that they are as diverse as a language family.
The internal diversity of Chinese has been likened to that of the Romance languages, but may be even more varied. There are between 7 and 13 main regional groups of Chinese (depending on classification scheme), of which the most spoken by far is Mandarin (about 960 million), followed by Wu (80 million), Yue (60 million) and Min (70 million). Most of these groups are mutually unintelligible, although some, like Xiang and the Southwest Mandarin dialects, may share common terms and some degree of intelligibility. All varieties of Chinese are tonal and analytic.
The Sinitic languages, are a family of Sino-Tibetan languages, often synonymous with the group of Chinese varieties. They have frequently been postulated to constitute a primary branch, but this is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. The Bai languages and possible relatives, whose classification is difficult, may also be Sinitic; otherwise Sinitic is equivalent to Chinese, and the term may be used to indicate that the varieties of Chinese are distinct languages rather than dialects of a single language.
van Driem, George (2001), Languages of the Himalayas: An Ethnolinguistic Handbook of the Greater Himalayan Region, Brill, ISBN90-04-10390-2
Enfield, N.J. (2003), Linguistics Epidemiology: Semantics and Language Contact in Mainland Southeast Asia, Psychology Press, ISBN0415297435
Hannas, W. (1997), Asia's Orthographic Dilemma, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN082481892X
Kurpaska, Maria (2010), Chinese Language(s): A Look Through the Prism of "The Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects", Walter de Gruyter, ISBN978-3-11-021914-2
Executives of 405Chinese and foreign companies are confident in the Chinese economic outlook, as shown in a survey by Global Times Research Center, Global Times reported on Thursday ... Executives have higher confidence in the recovery of the Chinese economy than the Asian and global economies over the next three years.
The Biden administration is expected to unveil an executive order this year curbing some US investments in sensitive Chinese tech industries as some lawmakers in Washington blame American investors for transferring capital and valuable know-how to Chinese tech companies that could help advance Beijing’s military capabilities.
investors including the investment arms of Intel Corp and Qualcomm Inc accounted for nearly a fifth of investments in Chinese artificial intelligence companies from 2015 to 2021, a report showed on Wednesday ... funding of Chinese tech companies ... The Biden administration is expected to unveil an executive order this year curbing some U.S.
The report comes amid much criticism of US involvement in Chinese affairs, with the Biden administration expected to announce an executive order limiting some US investments in the Chinese tech industry over worries that American investors could unintentionally provide helpful information to Beijing's military.
Singapore’s property market is bracing for surging demand from Chinese buyers as the world’s second-largest economy reopens. ... Still, such demand is unlikely to fuel price rises in the city-state as the number of Chinese buyers is still small compared with locals.
investors including the investment arms of Intel Corp (INTC.O) and Qualcomm Inc (QCOM.O) accounted for nearly a fifth of investments in Chinese artificial intelligence companies from 2015 to 2021, a report showed on Wednesday ... funding of Chinese tech companies ... Only one Chinese AI company that received funding from U.S.
When asked about his outlook for the Chinese market performance and macroeconomy in 2023, the executive said that the adjustment of China's pandemic response measures will get manufacturing, distribution and logistics running again, which is a "good thing for China and the whole world.".
“ByteDance-owned TikTok has knowingly allowed the ability for the ChineseCommunist Party to access American user data,” Rodgers said, referring to TikTok’s Chinese parent company ...PresidentDonald Trump issued an executive order in July 2020 banning TikTok, along with WeChat, another popular Chinese-owned messaging app, from the U.S.
The Chinese government has ... Chinese PremierLi Keqiang said at a recent State Council executive meeting that boosting consumption is a crucial step for expanding domestic demand, emphasizing the importance of restoring the structural role of consumption in the economy. .
The crown of all these projects and the centerpiece of the CPEC is Gwadar, a port city on the southwestern coast of Balochistan...China is sincerely assisting Pakistan to bring about economic recovery and speed up the execution of all vital projects. The people of Pakistan acknowledge Chinese people’s sincerity and will always remain grateful for it ... .
Opening prayer ... Gov ... Strong families ... Chinese influence. Noem said, “Perhaps the greatest external challenge facing the United States is the Chinese Communist Party,” and explained her executive order in alignment with the federal government and over 20 other states to ban TikTok for state government due to the security threat from data collection ... ....
Chinese buyers are rapidly returning to the Australian property market after an end to Covid restrictions and improved relations between the countries make it a better investment ... 'This will be the first opportunity for most Chinese to visit overseas real estate markets in three years,' Juwai's chief executive KashifAnsari told Domain.